source: project/wiki/man/4/Using the compiler @ 33354

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Synch wiki manual with 4.11.0 release manual (some small updates, plus a new Debugging chapter)

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1[[tags: manual]]
2[[toc:]]
3
4== Using the compiler
5
6The {{csc}} compiler driver provides a convenient interface to
7the basic Scheme-to-C translator ({{chicken}}) and takes care
8for compiling and linking the generated C files into executable
9code. Enter
10
11 csc -help
12
13on the command line for a list of options.
14
15=== Compiler command line format
16
17 csc FILENAME-OR-OPTION
18
19{{FILENAME}} is the pathname of the source file that is to
20be compiled. A filename argument of {{-}} (a single dash) specifies that
21the source text should be read from standard input.
22
23==== Basic command-line options
24
25; -analyze-only : Stop compilation after first analysis pass.
26
27; -block : Enable block-compilation. When this option is specified, the compiler assumes that global variables are not modified outside this compilation-unit.  Specifically, toplevel bindings are not seen by {{eval}} and unused toplevel bindings are removed.
28
29; -case-insensitive : Enables the reader to read symbols case insensitive. The default is to read case sensitive (in violation of R5RS).  This option registers the {{case-insensitive}} feature identifier.
30
31; -check-syntax : Aborts compilation process after macro-expansion and syntax checks.
32
33; -clustering : Combine groups of local procedures into dispatch-loops, if possible.
34
35; -consult-inline-file FILENAME : load file with definitions for cross-module inlining generated by a previous compiler invocation via {{-emit-inline-file}}. Implies {{-inline}}.
36
37; -debug MODES : Enables one or more compiler debugging modes. {{MODES}} is a string of characters that select debugging information about the compiler that will be printed to standard output. Use {{-debug h}} to see a list of available debugging options.
38
39; -debug-level LEVEL : Selects amount of debug-information. {{LEVEL}} should be an integer.
40
41     -debug-level 0             is equivalent to -no-trace -no-lambda-info
42     -debug-level 1             is equivalent to -no-trace
43     -debug-level 2             is equivalent to -scrutinize
44
45; -disable-interrupts : Equivalent to the {{(disable-interrupts)}} declaration. No interrupt-checks are generated for compiled programs.
46
47; -disable-stack-overflow-checks : Disables detection of stack overflows. This is equivalent to running the compiled executable with the {{-:o}} runtime option.
48
49; -dynamic : This option should be used when compiling files intended to be loaded dynamically into a running Scheme program.
50
51; -epilogue FILENAME : Includes the file named {{FILENAME}} at the end of the compiled source file. The include-path is not searched. This option may be given multiple times.
52
53; -emit-all-import-libraries : emit import libraries for all modules defined in the current compulation unit (see also: {{-emit-import-library}}).
54
55; -emit-external-prototypes-first : Emit prototypes for callbacks defined with {{define-external}} before any other foreign declarations. This is sometimes useful, when C/C++ code embedded into the a Scheme program has to access the callbacks. By default the prototypes are emitted after foreign declarations.
56
57; -emit-import-library MODULE : Specifies that an import library named {{MODULE.import.scm}} for the named module should be generated (equivalent to using the {{emit-import-library}} declaration).
58
59; -emit-inline-file FILENAME : Write procedures that can be globally inlined in internal form to {{FILENAME}}, if global inlining is enabled. Implies {{-inline -local}}. If the inline-file would be empty (because no procedure would be inlinable) no file is generated and any existing inline-file with that name is deleted.
60
61; -emit-type-file FILENAME : Write type-information for declarations of user-defined and globally visible variables to a file of the given name. The generated file is suitable for use with the {{-types}} option.
62
63; -explicit-use : Disables automatic use of the units {{library, eval}} and {{expand}}. Use this option if compiling a library unit instead of an application unit.
64
65; -extend FILENAME : Loads a Scheme source file or compiled Scheme program (on systems that support it) before compilation commences. This feature can be used to extend the compiler.  This option may be given multiple times. The file is also searched in the current include path and in the extension-repository.
66
67; -feature SYMBOL : Registers {{SYMBOL}} to be a valid feature identifier for {{cond-expand}}. Multiple symbols may be given, if comma-separated.
68
69; -fixnum-arithmetic : Equivalent to {{(fixnum-arithmetic)}} declaration. Assume all mathematical operations use small integer arguments.
70
71; -heap-size NUMBER : Sets a fixed heap size of the generated executable to {{NUMBER}} bytes. The parameter may be followed by a  {{M}} ({{m}}) or {{K}} ({{k}}) suffix which stand for mega- and kilobytes, respectively.  The default heap size is 5 kilobytes. Note that only half of it is in use at every given time.
72
73; -help : Print a summary of available options and the format of the command line parameters and exit the compiler.
74
75; -ignore-repository : Do not load any extensions from the repository (treat repository as empty). Also do not consult compiled (only interpreted) import libraries in {{import}} forms.
76
77; -include-path PATHNAME : Specifies an additional search path for files included via the {{include}} special form. This option may be given multiple times. If the environment variable {{CHICKEN_INCLUDE_PATH}} is set, it should contain a list of alternative include pathnames separated by {{;}}.
78
79; -inline : Enable procedure inlining for known procedures of a size below the threshold (which can be set through the {{-inline-limit}} option).
80
81; -inline-global : Enable cross-module inlining (in addition to local inlining). Implies {{-inline}}. For more information, see also [[Declarations]].
82
83; -inline-limit THRESHOLD : Sets the maximum size of a potentially inlinable procedure. The default threshold is {{20}}.
84
85; -keyword-style STYLE : Enables alternative keyword syntax, where {{STYLE}} may be either {{prefix}} (as in Common Lisp, e.g. :keyword), {{suffix}} (as in DSSSL, e.g. keyword:) or {{none}}. Any other value is ignored. The default is {{suffix}}.
86
87; -keep-shadowed-macros : Do not remove macro definitions with the same name as assigned toplevel variables (the default is to remove the macro definition).
88
89; -local : Assume toplevel variables defined in the current compilation unit are not externally modified. This gives the compiler more opportunities for inlining. Note that this may result in counter-intuitive and non-standard behaviour: an asssignment to an exported toplevel variable executed in a different compilation unit or in evaluated code will possibly not be seen by code executing in the current compilation unit.
90
91; -lfa2 : Does an additional lightweight flow-analysis pass on the fully optimized program to remove more type checks.
92
93; -module : wraps the compiled code in an implicit module named {{main}}, importing the {{scheme}} and {{chicken}} modules.
94
95; -no-argc-checks : disable argument count checks
96
97; -no-bound-checks : disable bound variable checks
98
99; -no-feature SYMBOL : Disables the predefined feature-identifier {{SYMBOL}}. Multiple symbols may be given, if comma-separated.
100
101; -no-lambda-info : Don't emit additional information for each {{lambda}} expression (currently the argument-list, after alpha-conversion/renaming).
102
103; -no-module-registration : Do not generate module-registration code in the compiled code. This is only needed if you want to use an import library that is generated by other means (manually, for example).
104
105; -no-parentheses-synonyms : Disables list delimiter synonyms, [..] and {...} for (...).
106
107; -no-procedure-checks : disable procedure call checks
108
109; -no-procedure-checks-for-usual-bindings :  disable procedure call checks only for usual bindings
110
111; -no-procedure-checks-for-toplevel-bindings :  disable bound and procedure call checks for calls to procedures referenced through a toplevel variable.
112
113; -no-symbol-escape : Disables support for escaped symbols, the |...| form.
114
115; -no-trace : Disable generation of tracing information. If a compiled executable should halt due to a runtime error, then a list of the name and the line-number (if available) of the last procedure calls is printed, unless {{-no-trace}} is specified. With this option the generated code is slightly faster.
116
117; -no-warnings : Disable generation of compiler warnings.
118
119; -nursery NUMBER :
120; -stack-size NUMBER : Sets the size of the first heap-generation of the generated executable to {{NUMBER}} bytes. The parameter may be followed by a {{M}} ({{m}}) or {{K}} ({{k}}) suffix.  The default stack-size depends on the target platform.
121
122; -optimize-leaf-routines : Enable leaf routine optimization.
123
124; -optimize-level LEVEL : Enables certain sets of optimization options. {{LEVEL}} should be an integer.
125
126     -optimize-level 0          is equivalent to -no-usual-integrations -no-compiler-syntax
127     -optimize-level 1          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines
128     -optimize-level 2          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines -inline
129     -optimize-level 3          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines -local -inline -inline-global -specialize
130     -optimize-level 4          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines -local -inline -inline-global -specialize -unsafe
131     -optimize-level 5          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines -block -inline -inline-global -specialize -unsafe -disable-interrupts -no-trace -no-lambda-info -clustering -lfa2
132
133; -output-file FILENAME : Specifies the pathname of the generated C file. Default is {{FILENAME.c}}.
134
135; -postlude EXPRESSIONS : Add {{EXPRESSIONS}} after all other toplevel expressions in the compiled file.  This option may be given multiple times. Processing of this option takes place after processing of {{-epilogue}}.
136
137; -prelude EXPRESSIONS : Add {{EXPRESSIONS}} before all other toplevel expressions in the compiled file.  This option may be given multiple times. Processing of this option takes place before processing of {{-prologue}}.
138
139; -profile :
140; -accumulate-profile : Instruments the source code to count procedure calls and execution times. After the program terminates (either via an explicit {{exit}} or implicitly), profiling statistics are written to a file named {{PROFILE.<randomnumber>}}. Each line of the generated file contains a list with the procedure name, the number of calls and the time spent executing it. Use the {{chicken-profile}} program to display the profiling information in a more user-friendly form. Enter {{chicken-profile -help}} at the command line to get a list of available options. The {{-accumulate-profile}} option is similar to {{-profile}}, but the resulting profile information will be appended to any existing {{PROFILE}} file. {{chicken-profile}} will merge and sum up the accumulated timing information, if several entries for the same procedure calls exist. Only profiling information for global procedures will be collected.  See the {{-:p}} option under [[#runtime-options|"Runtime options"]] below for statistical profiling support.
141
142; -profile-name FILENAME : Specifies name of the generated profile information (which defaults to {{PROFILE.<randomnumber>}}. Implies {{-profile}}.
143
144; -prologue FILENAME : Includes the file named {{FILENAME}} at the start of the compiled source file.  The include-path is not searched. This option may be given multiple times.
145
146; -r5rs-syntax : Disables the CHICKEN extensions to R5RS syntax. Does not disable [[Non-standard read syntax|non-standard read syntax]].
147
148; -raw : Disables the generation of any implicit code that uses the Scheme libraries (that is all runtime system files besides {{runtime.c}} and {{chicken.h}}).
149
150; -require-extension NAME : Loads the extension {{NAME}} before the compilation process commences. This is identical to adding {{(require-extension NAME)}} at the start of the compiled program. If {{-uses NAME}} is also given on the command line, then any occurrences of {{-require-extension NAME}} are replaced with {{(declare (uses NAME))}}. Multiple names may be given and should be separated by commas.
151
152; -setup-mode : When locating extension, search the current directory first. By default, extensions are located first in the ''extension repository'', where {{chicken-install}} stores compiled extensions and their associated metadata.
153
154; -specialize : Enable simple flow-analysis for doing some type-directed optimizations.
155
156; -strict-types : Assume that the type of variables is not changed by assignments. This gives more type-information during specialization, but violating this assumption will result in unsafe and incorrectly behaving code.
157
158; -types FILENAME : load additional type database from {{FILENAME}}. Type-definitions in {{FILENAME}} will override previous type-definitions.
159
160; -compile-syntax : Makes macros also available at run-time. By default macros are not available at run-time.
161
162; -to-stdout : Write compiled code to standard output instead of creating a {{.c}} file.
163
164; -unit NAME : Compile this file as a library unit. Equivalent to {{-prelude "(declare (unit NAME))"}}
165
166; -unsafe : Disable runtime safety checks.
167
168; -uses NAME : Use definitions from the library unit {{NAME}}. This is equivalent to {{-prelude "(declare (uses NAME))"}}. Multiple arguments may be given, separated by {{,}}.
169
170; -no-usual-integrations : Specifies that standard procedures and certain internal procedures may be redefined, and can not be inlined. This is equivalent to declaring {{(not usual-integrations)}}.
171
172; -version : Prints the version and some copyright information and exit the compiler.
173
174; -verbose : enables output of notes that are not necessarily warnings but might be of interest.
175
176The environment variable {{CHICKEN_OPTIONS}} can be set to a string
177with default command-line options for the compiler.
178
179==== Further options
180
181Enter
182
183  csc -help
184
185to see a list of all supported options and short aliases to basic options.
186
187=== Runtime options
188
189After successful compilation a C source file is generated and can be
190compiled with a C compiler. Executables generated with CHICKEN (and the
191compiler itself) accept a small set of runtime options:
192
193; {{-:?}} : Shows a list of the available runtime options and exits the program.
194
195; {{-:aNUMBER}} : Specifies the length of the buffer for recording a trace of the last invoked procedures. Defaults to 16.
196
197; {{-:b}} : Enter a read-eval-print-loop when an error is encountered.
198
199; {{-:B}} : Sounds a bell (ASCII 7) on every major garbage collection.
200
201; {{-:c}} : Forces console mode. Currently this is only used in the interpreter ({{csi}}) to force output of the {{#;N>}} prompt even if stdin is not a terminal (for example if running in an {{emacs}} buffer under Windows).
202
203; {{-:d}} : Prints some debug-information at runtime.
204
205; {{-:D}} : Prints some more debug-information at runtime.
206
207; {{-:g}} : Prints information about garbage-collection.
208
209; {{-:G}} : Force GUI mode (show error messages in dialog box, suitable for platform).
210
211; {{-:H}} : Before terminating, dump heap usage to stderr.
212
213; {{-:fNUMBER}} : Specifies the maximal number of currently pending finalizers before finalization is forced.
214
215; {{-:hNUMBER}} : Specifies fixed heap size
216
217; {{-:hgPERCENTAGE}} : Sets the growth rate of the heap in percent. If the heap is exhausted, then it will grow by {{PERCENTAGE}}. The default is 200.
218
219; {{-:hiNUMBER}} : Specifies the initial heap size
220
221; {{-:hmNUMBER}} : Specifies a maximal heap size. The default is (2GB - 15).
222
223; {{-:hsPERCENTAGE}} : Sets the shrink rate of the heap in percent. If no more than a quarter of {{PERCENTAGE}} of the heap is used, then it will shrink to {{PERCENTAGE}}. The default is 50.  Note: If you want to make sure that the heap never shrinks, specify a value of {{0}}.  (this can be useful in situations where an optimal heap-size is known in advance).
224
225; {{-:o}} : Disables detection of stack overflows at run-time.
226
227; {{-:p}} : Enable collection of statistics for profiling purposes and write to PROFILE.{{pid}} on exit.  This functions at a granularity defined by the trace information in the binary and libraries: each traced function will show up in the output.  See the {{-profile}} compiler option for instrumentation-based profiling.  The {{PROFILE.pid}} format is compatible with the format generated by instrumentation-based profiling.
228
229; {{-:PFREQUENCY}} : Same as {{-:p}} but set the sampling frequency in microseconds (default is 10000 microseconds or every 10 milliseconds).
230
231; {{-:r}} : Writes trace output to stderr. This option has no effect with in files compiled with the {{-no-trace}} options.
232
233; {{-:sNUMBER}} : Specifies stack size.
234
235; {{-:tNUMBER}} : Specifies symbol table size.
236
237; {{-:w}} : Enables garbage collection of unused symbols. By default unused and unbound symbols are not garbage collected.
238
239; {{-:x}} : Raises uncaught exceptions of separately spawned threads in primordial thread. By default uncaught exceptions in separate threads are not handled, unless the primordial one explicitly joins them. When warnings are enabled (the default) and {{-:x}} is not given, a warning will be shown, though.
240
241Runtime argument values should be given as integers, optionally followed
242by a unit modifier for kilobytes (suffixed with {{K}} or {{k}}),
243megabytes (suffixed with {{M}} or {{m}}), or gigabytes (suffixed with
244{{G}} or {{g}}).
245
246Runtime options may be combined, like {{-:dc}}, but everything following
247an argument is ignored. So {{-:wh64m}} is OK, but {{-:h64mw}} will not
248enable GC of unused symbols.
249
250=== Examples
251
252==== A simple example (with one source file)
253
254To compile a Scheme program (assuming a UNIX-like environment) consisting of a single source file, perform the following steps.
255
256===== Writing your source file
257
258In this example we will assume your source file is called {{foo.scm}}:
259
260<enscript highlight=scheme>
261;;; foo.scm
262
263(define (fac n)
264  (if (zero? n)
265      1
266      (* n (fac (- n 1))) ) )
267
268(write (fac 10))
269(newline)
270</enscript>
271
272===== Compiling your program
273
274Compile the file {{foo.scm}}:
275
276 % csc foo.scm
277
278This will produce the {{foo}} executable:
279
280 % ls
281 foo  foo.scm
282
283===== Running your program
284
285To run your newly compiled executable use:
286
287 % ./foo
288 3628800
289
290
291==== An example with multiple files
292
293If multiple bodies of Scheme code are to be combined into a single
294executable, then we have to compile each file and link the resulting
295object files together with the runtime system.
296
297Let's consider an example where your program consists of multiple source files.
298
299===== Writing your source files
300
301The declarations in these files specify which of the compiled files is the main
302module, and which is the library module. An executable can only have
303one main module, since a program has only a single entry-point. In this
304case {{foo.scm}} is the main module, because it doesn't have a
305{{unit}} declaration:
306
307<enscript highlight=scheme>
308;;; foo.scm
309
310; The declaration marks this source file as dependant on the symbols provided
311; by the bar unit:
312(declare (uses bar))
313
314(write (fac 10)) (newline)
315</enscript>
316
317{{bar.scm}} will be our library:
318
319<enscript highlight=scheme>
320;;; bar.scm
321
322; The declaration marks this source file as the bar unit.  The names of the
323; units and your files don't need to match.
324(declare (unit bar))
325
326(define (fac n)
327  (if (zero? n)
328      1
329      (* n (fac (- n 1))) ) )
330</enscript>
331
332===== Compiling and running your program
333
334You should compile your two files with the following commands:
335
336 % csc -c bar.scm
337 % csc -c foo.scm
338
339That should produce two files, {{bar.o}} and {{foo.o}}.
340They contain the code from your source files in compiled form.
341
342To link your compiled files use the following command:
343
344 % csc foo.o bar.o -o foo
345
346This should produce the {{foo}} executable, which you can run just as in the previous example.
347At this point you can also erase the {{*.o}} files.
348
349You could avoid one step and link the two files just as {{foo.scm}} is compiled:
350
351 % csc -c bar.scm
352 % csc foo.scm bar.o -o foo
353
354Note that if you want to distribute your program, you might want it to
355follow the GNU Coding Standards.  One relatively easy way to achieve
356this is to use Autoconf and Automake, two tools made for this specific
357purpose.
358
359=== Extending the compiler
360
361The compiler supplies a couple of hooks to add user-level passes to the
362compilation process. Before compilation commences any Scheme source files
363or compiled code specified using the {{-extend}} option are loaded
364and evaluated.  The parameters {{user-options-pass, user-read-pass,
365user-preprocessor-pass, user-pass}} and {{user-post-analysis-pass}} can be set
366to procedures that are called to perform certain compilation passes
367instead of the usual processing (for more information about parameters
368see: [[Supported language]].
369
370<parameter>user-options-pass</parameter>
371
372Holds a procedure that will be called with a list of command-line arguments and should return two values: the source filename and the actual list of options, where compiler switches have their leading {{-}} (hyphen) removed and are converted to symbols.  Note that this parameter is invoked '''before''' processing of the {{-extend}} option, and so can only be changed in compiled user passes.
373
374<parameter>user-read-pass</parameter>
375
376Holds a procedure of three arguments. The first argument is a list of strings with the code passed to the compiler via {{-prelude}} options. The second argument is a list of source files including any files specified by {{-prologue}} and {{-epilogue}}. The third argument is a list of strings specified using {{-postlude}} options. The procedure should return a list of toplevel Scheme expressions.
377
378<parameter>user-preprocessor-pass</parameter>
379
380Holds a procedure of one argument. This procedure is applied to each toplevel expression in the source file '''before''' macro-expansion. The result is macro-expanded and compiled in place of the original expression.
381
382<parameter>user-pass</parameter>
383
384Holds a procedure of one argument. This procedure is applied to each toplevel expression '''after''' macro-expansion.  The result of the procedure is then compiled in place of the original expression.
385
386<parameter>user-post-analysis-pass</parameter>
387
388Holds a procedure that will be called after every performed program analysis pass. The procedure (when defined) will be called with seven arguments: a symbol indicating the analysis pass, the program database, the current node graph, a getter and a setter-procedure which can be used to access and manipulate the program database, which holds various information about the compiled program, a pass iteration count, and an analysis continuation flag. The getter procedure should be called with two arguments: a symbol representing the binding for which information should be retrieved, and a symbol that specifies the database-entry. The current value of the database entry will be returned or {{#f}}, if no such entry is available. The setter procedure is called with three arguments: the symbol and key and the new value. The pass iteration count currently is meaningful only for the 'opt pass. The analysis continuation flag will be {{#f}} for the last 'opt pass. For information about the contents of the program database contact the author.
389
390Loaded code (via the {{-extend}} option) has access to the library
391units {{extras, srfi-1, srfi-4, utils, regex}} and the pattern matching macros.
392Multithreading is not available.
393
394Note that the macroexpansion/canonicalization phase of the compiler adds
395certain forms to the source program.  These extra expressions are not
396seen by {{user-preprocessor-pass}} but by {{user-pass}}.
397
398=== Distributing compiled C files
399
400It is relatively easy to create distributions of Scheme projects that
401have been compiled to C.  The runtime system of CHICKEN consists of only
402three handcoded C files ({{runtime.c}} and {{chicken.h}}), plus
403the file {{chicken-config.h}}, which is generated by the build process. All
404other modules of the runtime system and the extension libraries are just
405compiled Scheme code.The following example shows a minimal application, which
406should run without changes on the most frequent operating systems, like Windows,
407Linux or FreeBSD (Static binaries are NOT supported on Mac OS X):
408
409
410Let's take a simple example.
411
412<enscript highlight=scheme>
413; hello.scm
414
415(print "Hello, world!")
416</enscript>
417
418  % csc -t hello.scm -optimize-level 3 -output-file hello.c
419
420Compiled to C, we get {{hello.c}}. We need the files {{chicken.h}},
421{{chicken-config.h}}, {{build-version.c}}, {{buildtag.h}} and
422{{runtime.c}}, which contain the basic runtime system, plus the five
423basic library files {{library.c}}, {{eval.c}}, {{expand.c}},
424{{modules.c}} and {{build-version.c}} which contain the same
425functionality as the library linked into a plain CHICKEN-compiled
426application, or which is available by default in the interpreter,
427{{csi}}:
428
429
430  % cd /tmp
431  % echo '(print "Hello World.")' > hello.scm
432  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/runtime.c  .
433  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/library.c  .
434  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/eval.c     .
435  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/extras.c   .
436  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/expand.c   .
437  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/modules.c  .
438  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/build-version.c  .
439  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/chicken.h  .
440  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/chicken-config.h  .
441  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/buildtag.h  .
442  % gcc -static -Os -fomit-frame-pointer -DHAVE_CHICKEN_CONFIG_H runtime.c build-version.c \
443     library.c eval.c expand.c modules.c hello.c -o hello -lm
444
445Now we have all files together, and can create an tarball containing all the files:
446
447 % tar cf hello.tar hello.c runtime.c build-version.c library.c eval.c extras.c \
448   expand.c modules.c chicken.h chicken-config.h
449 % gzip hello.tar
450
451This is naturally rather simplistic. Things like enabling dynamic
452loading and selecting supported features of the host system would need
453more configuration- and build-time support. All this can be addressed
454using more elaborate build-scripts, makefiles or by using
455autoconf/automake.
456
457The {{chicken-config.h}} file may contain wrong settings for your
458deployment target. Especially when the architecture is different.
459In that case you will have to adjust the values as needed.
460
461Note also that the size of the application can still be reduced by removing
462{{eval}} and compiling {{hello.scm}} with the {{-explicit-use}} option.
463
464For more information, study the CHICKEN source code and/or ask on the CHICKEN
465mailing list.
466
467---
468Previous: [[Basic mode of operation]]
469
470Next: [[Using the interpreter]]
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