source: project/chicken/branches/scrutiny/manual/Using the compiler @ 14529

Last change on this file since 14529 was 14529, checked in by felix winkelmann, 11 years ago

more types; scrutiny bugfixes; integrated scrutiny of core libs into build; -types option

File size: 24.9 KB
Line 
1[[tags: manual]]
2[[toc:]]
3
4== Using the compiler
5
6The interface to {{chicken}} is intentionally simple.  System
7dependent makefiles, shell-scripts or batch-files should perform
8any necessary steps before and after invocation of {{chicken}}.
9A program named {{csc}} provides a much simpler
10interface to the Scheme- and C-compilers and linker. Enter
11
12 csc -help
13
14on the command line for more information.
15
16=== Compiler command line format
17
18 chicken FILENAME {OPTION}
19
20{{FILENAME}} is the complete pathname of the source file that is to
21be translated into C. A filename argument of {{-}} specifies that
22the source text should be read from standard input. Note that the filename
23has to be the first argument to {{chicken}}.
24
25Possible options are:
26
27; -analyze-only : Stop compilation after first analysis pass.
28
29; -benchmark-mode : Equivalent to {{-no-trace -no-lambda-info -optimize-level 4}} {{-fixnum-arithmetic -disable-interrupts -block -inline -lambda-lift}}.
30
31; -block : Enable block-compilation. When this option is specified, the compiler assumes that global variables are not modified outside this compilation-unit.  Specifically, toplevel bindings are not seen by {{eval}} and unused toplevel bindings are removed.
32
33; -case-insensitive : Enables the reader to read symbols case insensitive. The default is to read case sensitive (in violation of R5RS).  This option registers the {{case-insensitive}} feature identifier.
34
35; -check-syntax : Aborts compilation process after macro-expansion and syntax checks.
36
37; -debug MODES : Enables one or more compiler debugging modes. {{MODES}} is a string of characters that select debugging information about the compiler that will be printed to standard output.
38
39     t          show time needed for compilation
40     b          show breakdown of time needed for each compiler pass
41     o          show performed optimizations
42     r          show invocation parameters
43     s          show program-size information and other statistics
44     a          show node-matching during simplification
45     p          show execution of compiler sub-passes
46     l          show lambda-lifting information
47     m          show GC statistics during compilation
48     n          print the line-number database
49     c          print every expression before macro-expansion
50     u          lists all unassigned global variable references
51     x          display information about experimental features
52     D          when printing nodes, use node-tree output
53     N          show the real-name mapping table
54     U          show expressions after the secondary user pass
55     0          show database before lambda-lifting pass
56     L          show expressions after lambda-lifting
57     M          show syntax-/runtime-requirements
58     1          show source expressions
59     2          show canonicalized expressions
60     3          show expressions converted into CPS
61     4          show database after each analysis pass
62     5          show expressions after each optimization pass
63     6          show expressions after each inlining pass
64     7          show expressions after complete optimization
65     8          show database after final analysis
66     9          show expressions after closure conversion
67
68; -debug-level LEVEL : Selects amount of debug-information. {{LEVEL}} should be an integer.
69
70     -debug-level 0             is equivalent to -no-trace -no-lambda-info
71     -debug-level 1             is equivalent to -no-trace
72     -debug-level 2             does nothing (the default)
73
74; -disable-interrupts : Equivalent to the {{(disable-interrupts)}} declaration. No interrupt-checks are generated for compiled programs.
75
76; -disable-stack-overflow-checks : Disables detection of stack overflows. This is equivalent to running the compiled executable with the {{-:o}} runtime option.
77
78; -disable-warning CLASS : Disables specific class of warnings, may be given multiple times. The following classes are defined:
79
80     usage              warnings related to command-line arguments
81     type               warnings related to type-conversion
82     ext                warnings related to extension libraries
83     var                warnings related to variable- and syntax-definitions and use
84     const              warnings related to constant-definitions
85     syntax             syntax-related warnings
86     redef              warnings about redefinitions of standard- or extended-bindings
87     call               warnings related to known procedure calls
88     ffi                warnings related to the foreign function interface
89
90; -dynamic : This option should be used when compiling files intended to be loaded dynamically into a running Scheme program.
91
92; -epilogue FILENAME : Includes the file named {{FILENAME}} at the end of the compiled source file. The include-path is not searched. This option may be given multiple times.
93
94; -emit-external-prototypes-first : Emit prototypes for callbacks defined with {{define-external}} before any other foreign declarations. This is sometimes useful, when C/C++ code embedded into the a Scheme program has to access the callbacks. By default the prototypes are emitted after foreign declarations.
95
96; -emit-import-library MODULE : Specifies that an import library named {{MODULE.import.scm}} for the named module should be generated (equivalent to using the {{emit-import-library}} declaration).
97
98; -emit-inline-file FILENAME : Write procedures that can be globally inlined in internal form to {{FILENAME}}, if global inlining is enabled. Implies {{-inline -local}}.
99
100; -explicit-use : Disables automatic use of the units {{library, eval}} and {{extras}}. Use this option if compiling a library unit instead of an application unit.
101
102; -extend FILENAME : Loads a Scheme source file or compiled Scheme program (on systems that support it) before compilation commences. This feature can be used to extend the compiler.  This option may be given multiple times. The file is also searched in the current include path and in the extension-repository.
103
104; -feature SYMBOL : Registers {{SYMBOL}} to be a valid feature identifier for {{cond-expand}}. Multiple symbols may be given, if comma-separated.
105
106; -fixnum-arithmetic : Equivalent to {{(fixnum-arithmetic)}} declaration. Assume all mathematical operations use small integer arguments.
107
108; -heap-size NUMBER : Sets a fixed heap size of the generated executable to {{NUMBER}} bytes. The parameter may be followed by a  {{M}} ({{m}}) or {{K}} ({{k}}) suffix which stand for mega- and kilobytes, respectively.  The default heap size is 5 kilobytes. Note that only half of it is in use at every given time.
109
110; -heap-initial-size NUMBER : Sets the size that the heap of the compiled application should have at startup time.
111
112; -heap-growth PERCENTAGE : Sets the heap-growth rate for the compiled program at compile time (see: {{-:hg}}).
113
114; -heap-shrinkage PERCENTAGE : Sets the heap-shrinkage rate for the compiled program at compile time (see: {{-:hs}}).
115
116; -help : Print a summary of available options and the format of the command line parameters and exit the compiler.
117
118; -ignore-repository : Do not load any extensions from the repository (treat repository as empty). Also do not consult compiled (only interpreted) import libraries in {{import}} forms.
119
120; -include-path PATHNAME : Specifies an additional search path for files included via the {{include}} special form. This option may be given multiple times. If the environment variable {{CHICKEN_INCLUDE_PATH}} is set, it should contain a list of alternative include pathnames separated by {{;}}.
121
122; -inline : Enable procedure inlining for known procedures of a size below the threshold (which can be set through the {{-inline-limit}} option).
123
124; -inline-global : Enable cross-module inlining (in addition to local inlining).
125
126; -inline-limit THRESHOLD : Sets the maximum size of a potentially inlinable procedure. The default threshold is {{20}}.
127
128; -keyword-style STYLE : Enables alternative keyword syntax, where {{STYLE}} may be either {{prefix}} (as in Common Lisp), {{suffix}} (as in DSSSL) or {{none}}. Any other value is ignored. The default is {{suffix}}.
129
130; -keep-shadowed-macros : Do not remove macro definitions with the same name as assigned toplevel variables (the default is to remove the macro definition).
131
132; -lambda-lift : Enable the optimization known as lambda-lifting.
133
134; -local : Assume toplevel variables defined in the current compilation unit are not externally modified.
135
136; -no-lambda-info : Don't emit additional information for each {{lambda}} expression (currently the argument-list, after alpha-conversion/renaming).
137
138; -no-parentheses-synonyms STYLE : Disables list delimiter synonyms, [..] and {...} for (...).
139
140; -no-symbol-escape : Disables support for escaped symbols, the |...| form.
141
142; -no-trace : Disable generation of tracing information. If a compiled executable should halt due to a runtime error, then a list of the name and the line-number (if available) of the last procedure calls is printed, unless {{-no-trace}} is specified. With this option the generated code is slightly faster.
143
144; -no-warnings : Disable generation of compiler warnings.
145
146; -nursery NUMBER :
147; -stack-size NUMBER : Sets the size of the first heap-generation of the generated executable to {{NUMBER}} bytes. The parameter may be followed by a {{M}} ({{m}}) or {{K}} ({{k}}) suffix.  The default stack-size depends on the target platform.
148
149; -optimize-leaf-routines : Enable leaf routine optimization.
150
151; -optimize-level LEVEL : Enables certain sets of optimization options. {{LEVEL}} should be an integer.
152
153     -optimize-level 0          does nothing.
154     -optimize-level 1          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines
155     -optimize-level 2          is currently the same as -optimize-level 1
156     -optimize-level 3          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines -local -inline
157     -optimize-level 4          is equivalent to -optimize-leaf-routines -local -inline -unsafe
158
159; -output-file FILENAME : Specifies the pathname of the generated C file. Default is {{FILENAME.c}}.
160
161; -postlude EXPRESSIONS : Add {{EXPRESSIONS}} after all other toplevel expressions in the compiled file.  This option may be given multiple times. Processing of this option takes place after processing of {{-epilogue}}.
162
163; -prelude EXPRESSIONS : Add {{EXPRESSIONS}} before all other toplevel expressions in the compiled file.  This option may be given multiple times. Processing of this option takes place before processing of {{-prologue}}.
164
165; -profile :
166; -accumulate-profile : Instruments the source code to count procedure calls and execution times. After the program terminates (either via an explicit {{exit}} or implicitly), profiling statistics are written to a file named {{PROFILE}}. Each line of the generated file contains a list with the procedure name, the number of calls and the time spent executing it. Use the {{chicken-profile}} program to display the profiling information in a more user-friendly form. Enter {{chicken-profile}} with no arguments at the command line to get a list of available options. The {{-accumulate-profile}} option is similar to {{-profile}}, but the resulting profile information will be appended to any existing {{PROFILE}} file. {{chicken-profile}} will merge and sum up the accumulated timing information, if several entries for the same procedure calls exist.
167
168; -profile-name FILENAME : Specifies name of the generated profile information (which defaults to {{PROFILE}}. Implies {{-profile}}.
169
170; -prologue FILENAME : Includes the file named {{FILENAME}} at the start of the compiled source file.  The include-path is not searched. This option may be given multiple times.
171
172; -r5rs-syntax : Disables the Chicken extensions to R5RS syntax. Does not disable [[Non-standard read syntax|non-standard read syntax]].
173
174; -raw : Disables the generation of any implicit code that uses the Scheme libraries (that is all runtime system files besides {{runtime.c}} and {{chicken.h}}).
175
176; -require-extension NAME : Loads the extension {{NAME}} before the compilation process commences. This is identical to adding {{(require-extension NAME)}} at the start of the compiled program. If {{-uses NAME}} is also given on the command line, then any occurrences of {{-require-extension NAME}} are replaced with {{(declare (uses NAME))}}. Multiple names may be given and should be separated by {{,}}.
177
178; -scrutinize : Enable simple flow-analysis to catch common type errors and argument/result mismatches. You can also use the {{scrutinize}} declaration to enable scrutiny.
179
180; -static-extension NAME : similar to {{-require-extension NAME}}, but links extension statically (also applies for an explicit {{(require-extension NAME)}}).
181
182; -types FILENAME : load additional type database from {{FILENAME}}. Type-definitions in {{FILENAME}} will override previous type-definitions.
183
184; -compile-syntax : Makes macros also available at run-time. By default macros are not available at run-time.
185
186; -to-stdout : Write compiled code to standard output instead of creating a {{.c}} file.
187
188; -unit NAME : Compile this file as a library unit. Equivalent to {{-prelude "(declare (unit NAME))"}}
189
190; -unsafe : Disable runtime safety checks.
191
192; -unsafe-libraries : Marks the generated file for being linked with the unsafe runtime system. This should be used when generating shared object files that are to be loaded dynamically. If the marker is present, any attempt to load code compiled with this option will signal an error.
193
194; -uses NAME : Use definitions from the library unit {{NAME}}. This is equivalent to {{-prelude "(declare (uses NAME))"}}. Multiple arguments may be given, separated by {{,}}.
195
196; -no-usual-integrations : Specifies that standard procedures and certain internal procedures may be redefined, and can not be inlined. This is equivalent to declaring {{(not usual-integrations)}}.
197
198; -version : Prints the version and some copyright information and exit the compiler.
199
200; -verbose : Prints progress information to standard output during compilation.
201
202The environment variable {{CHICKEN_OPTIONS}} can be set to a string
203with default command-line options for the compiler.
204
205=== Runtime options
206
207After successful compilation a C source file is generated and can be
208compiled with a C compiler. Executables generated with CHICKEN (and the
209compiler itself) accept a small set of runtime options:
210
211; {{-:?}} : Shows a list of the available runtime options and exits the program.
212
213; {{-:aNUMBER}} : Specifies the length of the buffer for recording a trace of the last invoked procedures. Defaults to 16.
214
215; {{-:b}} : Enter a read-eval-print-loop when an error is encountered.
216
217; {{-:B}} : Sounds a bell (ASCII 7) on every major garbage collection.
218
219; {{-:c}} : Forces console mode. Currently this is only used in the interpreter ({{csi}}) to force output of the {{#;N>}} prompt even if stdin is not a terminal (for example if running in an {{emacs}} buffer under Windows).
220
221; {{-:d}} : Prints some debug-information at runtime.
222
223; {{-:D}} : Prints some more debug-information at runtime.
224
225; {{-:fNUMBER}} : Specifies the maximal number of currently pending finalizers before finalization is forced.
226
227; {{-:hNUMBER}} : Specifies fixed heap size
228
229; {{-:hgPERCENTAGE}} : Sets the growth rate of the heap in percent. If the heap is exhausted, then it will grow by {{PERCENTAGE}}. The default is 200.
230
231; {{-:hiNUMBER}} : Specifies the initial heap size
232
233; {{-:hmNUMBER}} : Specifies a maximal heap size. The default is (2GB - 15).
234
235; {{-:hsPERCENTAGE}} : Sets the shrink rate of the heap in percent. If no more than a quarter of {{PERCENTAGE}} of the heap is used, then it will shrink to {{PERCENTAGE}}. The default is 50.  Note: If you want to make sure that the heap never shrinks, specify a value of {{0}}.  (this can be useful in situations where an optimal heap-size is known in advance).
236
237; {{-:o}} : Disables detection of stack overflows at run-time.
238
239; {{-:r}} : Writes trace output to stderr. This option has no effect with in files compiled with the {{-no-trace}} options.
240
241; {{-:sNUMBER}} : Specifies stack size.
242
243; {{-:tNUMBER}} : Specifies symbol table size.
244
245; {{-:w}} : Enables garbage collection of unused symbols. By default unused and unbound symbols are not garbage collected.
246
247; {{-:x}} : Raises uncaught exceptions of separately spawned threads in primordial thread. By default uncaught exceptions in separate threads are not handled, unless the primordial one explicitly joins them. When warnings are enabled (the default) and {{-:x}} is not given, a warning will be shown, though.
248
249The argument values may be given in bytes, in kilobytes (suffixed with
250{{K}} or {{k}}), in megabytes (suffixed with {{M}}
251or {{m}}), or in gigabytes (suffixed with {{G}}
252or {{g}}). Runtime options may be combined, like {{-:dc}},
253but everything following a {{NUMBER}} argument is ignored. So
254{{-:wh64m}} is OK, but {{-:h64mw}} will not enable GC of
255unused symbols.
256=== Examples
257
258==== A simple example (with one source file)
259
260To compile a Scheme program (assuming a UNIX-like environment) consisting of a single source file, perform the following steps.
261
262===== Writing your source file
263
264In this example we will assume your source file is called {{foo.scm}}:
265
266<enscript highlight=scheme>
267;;; foo.scm
268
269(define (fac n)
270  (if (zero? n)
271      1
272      (* n (fac (- n 1))) ) )
273
274(write (fac 10))
275(newline)
276</enscript>
277
278===== Compiling your program
279
280Compile the file {{foo.scm}}:
281
282 % csc foo.scm
283
284This will produce the {{foo}} executable:
285
286 % ls
287 foo  foo.scm
288
289===== Running your program
290
291To run your newly compiled executable use:
292
293 % foo
294 3628800
295
296If you get a {{foo: command not found}} error, you might want to try with {{./foo}} instead
297(or, in Unix machines, modify your {{PATH}} environment variable to include your current directory).
298==== An example with multiple files
299
300If multiple bodies of Scheme code are to be combined into a single
301executable, then we have to compile each file and link the resulting
302object files together with the runtime system.
303
304Let's consider an example where your program consists of multiple source files.
305
306===== Writing your source files
307
308The declarations in these files specify which of the compiled files is the main
309module, and which is the library module. An executable can only have
310one main module, since a program has only a single entry-point. In this
311case {{foo.scm}} is the main module, because it doesn't have a
312{{unit}} declaration:
313
314<enscript highlight=scheme>
315;;; foo.scm
316
317; The declaration marks this source file as dependant on the symbols provided
318; by the bar unit:
319(declare (uses bar))
320
321(write (fac 10)) (newline)
322</enscript>
323
324{{bar.scm}} will be our library:
325
326<enscript highlight=scheme>
327;;; bar.scm
328
329; The declaration marks this source file as the bar unit.  The names of the
330; units and your files don't need to match.
331(declare (unit bar))
332
333(define (fac n)
334  (if (zero? n)
335      1
336      (* n (fac (- n 1))) ) )
337</enscript>
338
339===== Compiling and running your program
340
341You should compile your two files with the following commands:
342
343 % csc -c bar.scm
344 % csc -c foo.scm
345
346That should produce two files, {{bar.o}} and {{foo.o}}.
347They contain the code from your source files in compiled form.
348
349To link your compiled files use the following command:
350
351 % csc foo.o bar.o -o foo
352
353This should produce the {{foo}} executable, which you can run just as in the previous example.
354At this point you can also erase the {{*.o}} files.
355
356You could avoid one step and link the two files just as {{foo.scm}} is compiled:
357
358 % csc -c bar.scm
359 % csc foo.scm bar.o -o foo
360
361Note that if you want to distribute your program, you might want it to
362follow the GNU Coding Standards.  One relatively easy way to achieve
363this is to use Autoconf and Automake, two tools made for this specific
364purpose.
365
366=== Extending the compiler
367
368The compiler supplies a couple of hooks to add user-level passes to the
369compilation process. Before compilation commences any Scheme source files
370or compiled code specified using the {{-extend}} option are loaded
371and evaluated.  The parameters {{user-options-pass, user-read-pass,
372user-preprocessor-pass, user-pass}} and {{user-post-analysis-pass}} can be set
373to procedures that are called to perform certain compilation passes
374instead of the usual processing (for more information about parameters
375see: [[Supported language]].
376
377; [parameter] user-options-pass : Holds a procedure that will be called with a list of command-line arguments and should return two values: the source filename and the actual list of options, where compiler switches have their leading {{-}} (hyphen) removed and are converted to symbols.  Note that this parameter is invoked '''before''' processing of the {{-extend}} option, and so can only be changed in compiled user passes.
378
379; [parameter] user-read-pass : Holds a procedure of three arguments. The first argument is a list of strings with the code passed to the compiler via {{-prelude}} options. The second argument is a list of source files including any files specified by {{-prologue}} and {{-epilogue}}. The third argument is a list of strings specified using {{-postlude}} options. The procedure should return a list of toplevel Scheme expressions.
380
381; [parameter] user-preprocessor-pass : Holds a procedure of one argument. This procedure is applied to each toplevel expression in the source file '''before''' macro-expansion. The result is macro-expanded and compiled in place of the original expression.
382
383; [parameter] user-pass : Holds a procedure of one argument. This procedure is applied to each toplevel expression '''after''' macro-expansion.  The result of the procedure is then compiled in place of the original expression.
384
385; [parameter] user-post-analysis-pass : Holds a procedure that will be called after every performed program analysis pass. The procedure (when defined) will be called with seven arguments: a symbol indicating the analysis pass, the program database, the current node graph, a getter and a setter-procedure which can be used to access and manipulate the program database, which holds various information about the compiled program, a pass iteration count, and an analysis continuation flag. The getter procedure should be called with two arguments: a symbol representing the binding for which information should be retrieved, and a symbol that specifies the database-entry. The current value of the database entry will be returned or {{#f}}, if no such entry is available. The setter procedure is called with three arguments: the symbol and key and the new value. The pass iteration count currently is meaningful only for the 'opt pass. The analysis continuation flag will be {{#f}} for the last 'opt pass. For information about the contents of the program database contact the author.
386
387Loaded code (via the {{-extend}} option) has access to the library
388units {{extras, srfi-1, srfi-4, utils, regex}} and the pattern matching macros.
389Multithreading is not available.
390
391Note that the macroexpansion/canonicalization phase of the compiler adds
392certain forms to the source program.  These extra expressions are not
393seen by {{user-preprocessor-pass}} but by {{user-pass}}.
394
395=== Distributing compiled C files
396
397It is relatively easy to create distributions of Scheme projects that
398have been compiled to C.  The runtime system of CHICKEN consists of only
399two handcoded C files ({{runtime.c}} and {{chicken.h}}), plus
400the file {{chicken-config.h}}, which is generated by the build process. All
401other modules of the runtime system and the extension libraries are just
402compiled Scheme code. The following example shows a minimal application, which
403should run without changes on the most frequent operating systems, like Windows,
404Linux or FreeBSD:
405
406Let's take a simple example.
407
408<enscript highlight=scheme>
409; hello.scm
410
411(print "Hello, world!")
412</enscript>
413
414  % chicken hello.scm -optimize-level 3 -output-file hello.c
415
416Compiled to C, we get {{hello.c}}. We need the files {{chicken.h}} and
417{{runtime.c}}, which contain the basic runtime system, plus the three
418basic library files {{library.c}}, {{eval.c}} and {{extras.c}} which
419contain the same functionality as the library linked into a plain
420CHICKEN-compiled application, or which is available by default in the
421interpreter, {{csi}}:
422
423  % cd /tmp
424  %echo '(print "Hello World.")' > hello.scm
425  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/runtime.c .
426  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/library.c .
427  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/eval.c    .
428  % cp $CHICKEN_BUILD/extras.c  .
429  % gcc -static -Os -fomit-frame-pointer runtime.c library.c eval.c \
430    extras.c hello.c -o hello -lm
431
432Now we have all files together, and can create an tarball containing all the files:
433
434 % tar cf hello.tar Makefile hello.c runtime.c library.c eval.c extras.c chicken.h
435 % gzip hello.tar
436
437This is naturally rather simplistic. Things like enabling dynamic loading, estimating
438the optimal stack-size and selecting supported features of the host system would need
439more configuration- and build-time support. All this can be addressed using more
440elaborate build-scripts, makefiles or by using autoconf/automake.
441
442Note also that the size of the application can still be reduced by removing {{extras}} and
443{{eval}} and compiling {{hello.scm}} with the {{-explicit-use}} option.
444
445For more information, study the CHICKEN source code and/or get in
446contact with the author.
447
448---
449Previous: [[The User's Manual]]
450
451Next: [[Using the interpreter]]
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.