source: project/chicken/branches/inlining/README @ 15323

Last change on this file since 15323 was 15323, checked in by felix winkelmann, 10 years ago

more intelligent inlining; standard-extension procedure in setup-api

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1
2  README file for the CHICKEN Scheme system
3  (c) 2000-2007, Felix L. Winkelmann
4  (c) 2008-2009, The Chicken Team
5
6  version 4.1.2-ii
7
8
9 1. Introduction:
10
11        CHICKEN is a Scheme-to-C compiler supporting the language
12        features as defined in the 'Revised^5 Report on
13        Scheme'. Separate compilation is supported and full
14        tail-recursion and efficient first-class continuations are
15        available.
16
17        Some things that CHICKEN has to offer:
18
19        1. CHICKEN generates quite portable C code and compiled files
20           generated by it (including itself) should work without any
21           changes on DOS, Windows, most UNIX-like platforms, and with
22           minor changes on other systems.
23
24        2. The whole package is distributed under a BSD style license
25           and as such is free to use and modify as long as you agree
26           to its terms.
27
28        3. Linkage to C modules and C library functions is
29           straightforward. Compiled programs can easily be embedded
30           into existing C code.
31
32        4. Loads of extra libraries.
33
34        Note: Should you have any trouble in setting up and using
35        CHICKEN, please ask questions on the Chicken mailing list. You
36        can subscribe to the list from the Chicken homepage,
37        http://www.call-with-current-continuation.org)
38
39
40 2. Installation:
41
42        First unzip the package ("unzip chicken-<version>.zip" or "tar
43        xzf chicken-<version>.tar.gz" on UNIX or use your favorite
44        extraction program on Windows).
45
46        Building CHICKEN requires GNU Make. Other "make" derivates are
47        not supported. If you are using a Windows system and do not
48        have GNU Make, see below for a link to a precompiled set of
49        UNIX utilities, which among other useful tools contains "make".
50
51        Configuration and customization of the build process is done by
52        either setting makefile variables on the "make" command line or
53        by editing the platform-specific makefile.
54
55        Invoke "make" like this:
56
57          make PLATFORM=<platform> PREFIX=<destination>
58
59        where "PLATFORM" specifies on what kind of system CHICKEN
60        shall be built and "PREFIX" specifies where the executables
61        and libraries shall be installed. Out-of-directory builds are
62        currently not supported, so you must be in the toplevel source
63        directory to invoke "make".
64
65        Enter "make" without any options to see a list of supported
66        platforms.
67
68        Note that parallel builds (using the "-j" make(1) option) is
69        *not* supported.
70
71        If you build CHICKEN directly from the development sources out
72        of the subversion repository, you will need a "chicken"
73        executable to generate the compiled C files from the Scheme
74        library sources. If you have a recent version of CHICKEN
75        installed, then pass "CHICKEN=<chicken-executable>" to the
76        "make" invocation to override this setting. "CHICKEN" defaults
77        to "$PREFIX/bin/chicken".
78
79        If you do not have a "chicken" binary installed, enter
80
81          make PLATFORM=<platform> PREFIX=<destination> bootstrap
82
83        which will unpack a tarball containing precompiled C sources
84        that are recent enough to generate the current version. After
85        building a statically linked compiler executable (named
86        "chicken-boot") all *.scm files are marked for rebuilt. By
87        passing "CHICKEN=./chicken-boot" to "make", you can force
88        using this bootstrapped compiler to build the system.
89
90        If CHICKEN is build successfully, you can install it on your
91        system by entering
92
93          make PLATFORM=<platform> PREFIX=<destination> install
94
95        "PREFIX" defaults to "/usr/local". Note that the PREFIX is
96        compiled into several CHICKEN tools and must be the same
97        while building the system and during installation.
98
99        To install CHICKEN for a particular PREFIX on a different
100        location, set the "DESTDIR" variable in addition to "PREFIX":
101        It designates the directory where the files are installed
102        into.
103
104        You can further enable various optional features by adding
105        one or more of the following variables to the "make"
106        invocation:
107
108        DEBUGBUILD=1
109          Disable optimizations in compiled C code and enable
110          debug information.
111
112        STATICBUILD=1
113          Build only static versions of the runtime library, compiler
114          and interpreter. `chicken-install', `chicken-uninstall' and
115          `chicken-status' will not be generated, as it is mostly
116          useless unless compiled code can be loaded.
117
118        SYMBOLGC=1
119          Always enable garbage collection for unused symbols in the
120          symbol table by default. This will result in slightly slower
121          garbage collection, but minimizes the amount of garbage
122          retained at runtime (which might be important for long
123          running server applications). If you don't specify this
124          option you can still enable symbol GC at runtime by passing
125          the `-:w' runtime option when running the program.
126
127        NOAPPLYHOOK=1
128          For maximum performance this will disable support for
129          breakpoints, but speed up procedure invocation in safe
130          code. Smaller binaries can be obtained by also giving
131          "NOPTABLES=1", but that means serialization (available
132          as a separate package) of procedures will not be available.
133
134        C_COMPILER_OPTIMIZATION_OPTIONS=...
135          Override built-in C compiler optimization options. Available
136          for debug or release build.
137
138        PROGRAM_PREFIX=
139          A prefix to prepend to the names of all generated executables.
140          This allows having multiple CHICKEN versions in your PATH
141          (but note that they have to be installed at different locations).
142
143        PROGRAM_SUFFIX=
144          A suffix to be appended to the names of all generated executables.
145
146        HOSTSYSTEM=
147          A "<machine>-<platform>" name prefix to use for the C compiler to to
148          use to compile the runtime system and executables. Set this variable
149          if you want to compile CHICKEN for a different architecture than
150          the one on which you are building it.
151
152        TARGETSYSTEM=
153          Similar to "HOSTSYSTEM", but specifies the name
154          prefix to use for compiling code with the "csc" compiler
155          driver. This is required for creating a "cross chicken", a
156          specially built CHICKEN that invokes a cross C compiler to
157          build the final binaries. You will need a cross compiled
158          runtime system by building a version of CHICKEN with the
159          "HOST" option mentioned above. More information about this
160          process and the variables that you should set are provided
161          in the CHICKEN wiki at
162          <http://chicken.wiki.br/cross-compilation>.
163
164        SRCDIR=
165          Specifies that CHICKEN should be built outside of its source
166          tree. The SRCDIR variable indicates the location of the
167          CHICKEN source tree. The executables and object files will
168          be generated in the current directory.
169
170
171        To remove CHICKEN from your file-system, enter (probably as
172        root):
173
174            make PLATFORM=<platform> PREFIX=<destination> uninstall
175
176        (If you gave DESTDIR during installation, you have to pass
177        the same setting to "make" when uninstalling)
178
179        In case you invoke "make" with different configuration parameters,
180        it is advisable to run
181
182            make PLATFORM=<platform> confclean
183
184        to remove old configuration files.
185
186
187 3. Usage:
188
189        Documentation can be found in the directory
190        PREFIX/share/chicken/doc. The HTML documentation (in
191        "PREFIX/share/chicken/doc/html") is automatically generated
192        from the Wiki pages at <http://chicken.wiki.br/>. Go there to
193        read the most up to date documentation.
194
195
196 4. Extensions:
197
198        A large number of extension libraries for CHICKEN are
199        available at
200        <http://www.call-with-current-continuation.org/eggs/>. You can
201        automatically download, compile and install extensions with
202        the "chicken-install" program. See the CHICKEN User's Manual for
203        more information.
204
205        A selection of 3rd party libraries, together with source and
206        binary packages for tools helpful for development with CHICKEN
207        are also available at:
208        <http://www.call-with-current-continuation.org/tarballs/>.
209
210       
211 5. Platform issues:
212
213        - *BSD system users *must* use GNU make ("gmake") - the makefiles
214          can not be processed by BSD make.
215
216        - Some old Linux distributions ship with a buggy version of
217          the GNU C compiler (2.96). If the system is configured for
218          kernel recompilation, then an alternative GCC version is
219          available under the name `kgcc' (GCC 2.96 can not recompile
220          the kernel). CHICKEN's configuration script should normally
221          be able to handle this problem, but you have to remember to
222          compile your translated Scheme files with `kgcc' instead of
223          `gcc'.
224
225        - Older versions of Solaris have a bug in ld.so that causes
226          trouble with dynamic loading.  Patching Solaris fixes the
227          problem. Solaris 7 needs patch 106950-18. Solaris 8 has an
228          equivalent patch, 109147-16.
229
230          You can find out if you have these patches installed by
231          running:
232
233          % showrev -p | grep 106950    # solaris 7
234          % showrev -p | grep 109147    # solaris 8
235
236        - On NetBSD it might be possible that compilation fails with a
237          "virtual memory exhausted error".  Try the following:
238
239          % unlimit datasize
240
241        - Using external libraries on NetBSD may also be easier, if
242          you add the following definitions to `Makefile.bsd':
243
244            C_COMPILER_OPTIONS += -I/usr/pkg/lib
245            LINKER_OPTIONS += -L/usr/pkg/lib -Wl,-R/usr/pkg/lib
246
247          Note that this may cause build-problems, if you already have
248          an existing CHICKEN installation in the /usr/pkg prefix.
249
250        - For Mac OS X, Chicken requires libdl, for loading compiled
251          code dynamically. This library is available on Mac OS X 10.4
252          (Tiger) by default. For older versions you can find it here:
253
254            http://www.opendarwin.org/projects/dlcompat
255
256        - On Mac OS X, Chicken and its eggs can be built as universal
257          binaries which will work on either Intel or PowerPC.
258          To build on Tiger (10.4):
259
260            make PLATFORM=macosx ARCH=universal
261
262          On Leopard (10.5), an extra step is required before `make':
263
264            export MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.4
265            make PLATFORM=macosx ARCH=universal
266
267        - On Mac OS X, Chicken can be built in 64-bit mode on Intel
268          Core 2 Duo systems--basically, most recent machines.  The default
269          is 32-bit mode.  To enable 64-bit mode, invoke `make' thusly:
270
271            make PLATFORM=macosx ARCH=x86-64
272
273        - On Windows, mingw32, <http://mingw.sourceforge.net/> and
274          Cygwin are supported (Microsoft Visual Studio is *NOT*).
275          Makefiles for mingw under MSYS and Windows shell are provided
276          (`Makefile.mingw-msys' and `Makefile.mingw'). Please also
277          read the notes below.
278
279        - When installing under the mingw-msys platform, PREFIX must be an
280          absolute path name (i.e. it must include the drive letter) and
281          must use forward slashes (no backward slashes).
282
283        - When installing under mingw, with a windows shell ("cmd.exe"),
284          pass an absolute pathname as PREFIX and use forward slashes.
285
286        - When installing under mingw without MSYS, make sure that the
287          MSYS tools (in case you have some of them, in particular the
288          sh.exe UNIX shell) are *NOT* visible in your PATH.
289
290        - Cygwin will not be able to find the chicken shared libraries
291          until Windows is rebooted.
292
293        - gcc 3.4 shows sometimes warnings of the form
294
295            easyffi.c: In function `f_11735':
296            easyffi.c:18697: warning: `noreturn' function does return
297       
298          when compiling the system or compiled Scheme files. These
299          warnings are bogus and can be ignored.
300
301 6. Emacs support:
302
303        An emacs mode is provided in the file `hen.el'. To use it,
304        copy it somewhere into a location you normally use for emacs
305        extensions. If you want to add a specific location permanently
306        to the list of paths emacs should search for extensions, add
307        the following line to your `.emacs' file:
308
309          (setq load-path
310            (cons
311              "<directory-where-your-emacs-lisp-files-live>"
312              load-path))
313
314        Add
315
316          (require 'hen)
317       
318        To make "hen-mode" available, and enter it by issuing the
319        command M-x hen-mode.
320
321        A copy of Alex Shinn's highly useful tab-completion code is
322        also included in `scheme-complete.el'. Install it like `hen.el'
323        and add this code to your `.emacs':
324
325          (autoload 'scheme-smart-complete "scheme-complete" nil t)
326          (eval-after-load 'scheme
327            '(progn (define-key scheme-mode-map "\e\t" 'scheme-smart-complete)))
328
329        Or:
330
331          (eval-after-load 'scheme
332            '(progn (define-key scheme-mode-map "\t" 'scheme-complete-or-indent)))
333
334        If you use eldoc-mode (included in Emacs), you can also get live
335        scheme documentation with:
336
337        (add-hook 'scheme-mode-hook
338          (lambda ()
339              (setq eldoc-info-function 'scheme-get-current-symbol-info)
340                  (eldoc-mode)))
341
342        Replace "'scheme" in the elisp expressions above with "'hen", if
343        you want to add tab-completion to CHICKEN's own emacs mode.
344
345
346 7. Compatibility notes
347
348        CHICKEN 4 uses a completely reimplemented hygienic macro and
349        module system, which has considerably more felixbility and power,
350        but will require rewriting macros in code that previously was
351        used with CHICKEN 3. Notably, `define-macro' is not available
352        anymore. See the manual on how to translate such macros to
353        low-level hygienic macros or ask on the CHICKEN mailing list.
354
355
356 8. What's next?
357
358        If you find any bugs, or want to report a problem, please consider
359        using the "chicken-bug" tool to create a detailed bug report.
360
361        If you have any more questions or problems (even the slightest
362        problems, or the most stupid questions), then please subscribe
363        to the "chicken-users" mailing list and ask for help. It will
364        be answered.
365
366
367        Have fun!
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